Western nations for centuries have used translation as a tool for cultural genocide. Historically there has always been rampant censorship in Western media and academia concerning Chinese terms and concepts. As a result, today’s Western ‘China Studies’ is 99% fabrication, modeled around Western biblical and philosophical categories. Breaking this monopoly of the language imperialists is very very difficult. But all is not lost. Already we witness a future generation of scholars in East and West in the making that will fight this great linguistic imbalances and struggle for the emancipation of Asian words. [WATCH FULL VIDEO HERE] or [READ ARTICLE AT ASIA TIMES]
LITTLE IS known about China in Europe and America. Although the Chinese were enviable thinkers for over three millennia, almost nothing of their originality has reached us intact. The reason for this is simple. The Western world guarded against foreign knowledge with an old language trick: Translation. This has to stop.
Many Chinese ideas are deceased in world history yet behave in China as if alive： they are truly undead concepts.
The West’s disregard for foreign socio-cultural originality has become a real problem for the rest of the world. Western media and academia have the reputation for either omitting Chinese concepts or translating them into Western biblical and philosophical terminologies. This creates a perfect illusion: the West is all there is to know.
In the global discourse, true Chinese names and key concepts gradually became useless currency. Still walking, but hardly alive, Chinese culture somehow drags on in the Middle Kingdom, waiting for Westernization’s final strike. The Chinese terminologies mentioned in this essay are used by a billion East-Asians; yet the Western philosophers, scholars, journalists and their acolytes are not having any of it. Most of them, for good reasons, would rather see the Chinese language die. [GO TO VIDEO]
Deutungshoheit: This is a German term meaning having the sovereignty over the definition of thought. It could also be called the ‘prerogative of final definition’. It is the reason why individuals, groups, and nations engage in fierce battles over each others’ names. […] This constant struggle to eliminate your terms and enforce mine, is consuming most of today’s scholarship.
Watch out for the 24th World Congress of Philosophy in Beijing 2018!
A Philosopher Orgy in China: More than a thousand philosophers will be descending upon Beijing and Peking University in 2018 in order to celebrate the 24th World Congress of Philosophy. This piece was first published at Big Think, New York.
Chinese Categories: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H6lTrthn0Sk
Philosophy: Plato: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q34MHpBu0Oo
China Experts: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5BJvHWs5dPI
Slavoj Zizek: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b44IhiCuNw4
NEW VIDEO: “In January 2012, Mr. Pattberg presented a rough manuscript, ‘Shengren‘, to a committee of professors at Peking University, in which he proposed the revival of the shengren and the return of Chinese terminologies to world history. Everyone had a good time. The following audio is his reading of the opening lines.”
About Shengren (The Book):
About the Shengren Manuscript:
Writer and cultural critic Thorsten J. Pattberg discusses the perils of poisonous Western ‘Language Imperialism’ in China.
At the core of this notion is the West’s (almost) universal disregard for foreign cultural property and originality, as demonstrated in this piece by the Western syndication of “philosophy” and its shady and shameless propaganda methods. Western academics, publishers, and journalists have fabricated an Orwellian ‘World History’ in which Western-only (now exclusively English) terms are eligible. Everything else must be translated, or perish.
This coercion and blackmail of Chinese thought has been going on for centuries, unchecked, uncontested, with the result that today’s ‘China Studies’ and by extension China and the Chinese people in the Western mind have become literally ‘Chinese-free’. This is going to change, says Pattberg, but slowly: That’s because language imperialists hold most positions of power, are well funded, and are determined to guard their dubious (often biblical and philosophical) translations, their academic, political, or journalistic legacy and their colonial sense of entitlement. It’s basically like confronting an organized religion or very dangerous cult of China experts.
The only thing language imperialists don’t have is probably this: an easy future. Just like racism, language imperialism is going lose its justification and its legitimacy eventually; in favor of a more just, authentic, and more correct depiction of foreign cultures. The liberalization of Chinese and other foreign terminologies has only just begun.
Dr. Thorsten J. Pattberg (裴德思 Pei Desi) is a German writer, linguist, and cultural critic. Dr. Pattberg has written and published extensively about Global language, Competition for terminologies, and the End of translation. He is also active in promoting Confucianism, in particular Chinese terminologies, on a global scale.
RELATED READING: Free Asia-Pacific from Western hold (China Daily)
“Historians persistently warn against misleading biblical and philosophical Western translations of non-Western concepts, but few people outside the profession have heard about their critique. Meanwhile, Western language imperialists pick “Cultural China” into pieces word by word. Most of today’s Western China Studies is fraudulent, incorrect, and misleading.” –Asia Times, July 24, 2012
Institutions and persons mentioned by name (for or against the notion):
Frontiers of Philosophy in China, The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, The Economist, George Orwell, Slavoj Zizek, Benjamin Schwartz, Ji Xianlin, Tu Weiming, Gu Zhengkun, Roger T. Ames, Cambridge University, Harvard University, Warp Weft Way, Peking University Department of Philosophy, Council of Research in Values and Philosophy, The East-West Dichotomy
Book titles and images shown (for or against the notion):
Introduction to Classical Chinese Philosophy by Bryan W. van Norden
Chinese Philosophy: A Selective and Analytic Approach by Joseph S. Wu
Encyclopedia in Chinese Philosophy by Antonio S. Cua
Readings in Classical Chinese Philosophy: Han Dynasty in the 20th Century by Justin Tiwald
Chinese Philosophy by Peter Nancorrow
Creativity and Taoism by Chung-yuan Chang
Heaven and Earth Are Not Humane: The Problem of Evil in Classical Chinese Philosophy by Franklin Perkins
The Way and Its Power: Lao Tsu’s Tao Te Ching and Its Place in Chinese Thought by Arthur Waley
On Philosophy in China by Hyun Hochsmann
The Beginnings of Philosophy in China by Richard Gotshalk
Chinese Philosophy by Wen Haiming
Virtue Ethics and Consequentialism in Early Chinese Philosophy by Bryan W. van Norden
Philosophy on Bamboo: Text and The Production of Meaning in Early China by Dirk Meyer
Understanding Confucian Philosophy: Classical and Sung-Ming by Shu-Hsien Liu
An Intellectual History of China, Vol 1, Knowledge, Thought, and Belief before the Seventh Century CE by Zhaoguang Ge
Chinese Thought in a Global Context: A Dialogue Between Chinese & Western Philosophical Approaches by Karl-Heinz Pohl
Three Ways of Thought in Ancient China by Arthur Waley
Yinyang: Cosmology, Lineage, and Ritual by Robin R. Wang
Chinese Thought: From Confucius to Mao Tse-Tung by Herrlee G. Creel
Ancient Chinese Thought, Modern Chinese Power by Yan Xuetong
Dictionary of Chinese Symbols: Hidden Symbols in Chinese Life and Thought by Wolfram Eberhard
A Short History of Chinese Philosophy: A Systematic Account of Chinese Thought From Its Origins to the Present Day by Fung Yu-Lan
Readings in Han Chinese Thought by Mark Csikszentmihalyi
A Daoist Theory of Chinese Thought: A Philosophical Interpretation by Chad Hansen
The World of Thought in Ancient China by Benjamin I. Schwartz
Contemporary Confucian Political Philosophy by Stephen C. Angle
Sagehood: The Contemporary Significance of Neo-Confucian Philosophy by Stephen C. Angle
Human Rights and Chinese Thought: A Cross-Cultural Inquiry by Stephen C. Angle
A Source Book in Chinese Philosophy by Wing-Tsit Chan
Oriental Philosophy: A Westerner’s Guide to Eastern Thought by Stuart C. Hackett
The Central Philosophy of Tibet by Robert A. F. Thurman
Confucian and Neo-Confucian Philosophy by Chung-ying Cheng
Dao Companion to Neo-Confucian Philosophy by John Makeham
Embodied Moral Psychology and Confucian Philosophy by Bongrae Seok
The Confucian Creation of Heaven: Philosophy and the Defense of Ritual Mastery by Robert Eno
Confucian Reflections: Ancient Wisdom For Modern Times by Philip J. Ivanhoe
An Introduction to Chinese Philosophy by Karyn L. Lai
Confucian Perfectionism: A Political Philosophy for Modern Times by Joseph Chan
Confucian Philosophy: Innovations and Transformations by Chung-ying Cheng and Justin Tiwald
A Confucian Constitutional Order: How China’s Ancient Past Can Shape Its Political Future by Jiang Qing
An Introduction to Chinese Philosophy: From Ancient Philosophy to Chinese Buddhism by Jeeloo Liu
A History of Chinese of Chinese Philosophy, Vol 1, The Period of the Philosophers by Fung Yu-lan
The Way of the World: Readings in Chinese Philosophy by Thomas Cleary
Key Concepts in Chinese Philosophy by Zhang Dainian
Philosophy, Philology, and Politics in Eighteenth-Century China by Li Fu
Dialogue of Philosophies, Religions and Civilizations in the Era of Globalization, ed. By Zhao Dunhua
Book titles and image on Good Writing shown:
Media Writing: Print, Broadcast, and Public Relations by W. Richard Whitaker
An English Grammar with Exercises, Notes, and Questions by Rev. W. Allen
The Grammar of Empire in Eighteen-Century British Writing by Janet Sorensen
An Arrangement of English Grammar with… by David Davidson
The Principles of English Grammar by William Lennie
Effective Internal Communication by Lyn Smith
The Little Book on Oral Argument by Alan L. Dworsky
Speaking to Good Effect: An Introduction by Douglas G. Lawrie
Writing Remedies: Practical Exercises for Technical Writing by Edmond H. Weiss
The Wall Street Journal: Guide to Business Style and Usage by Paul R. Martin
The Chicago Manual of Style: The Essential Guide for Writers, Editors, and Publishers, The University of Chicago
Writing with Style: Conversations on the Art of Writing by John R. Trimble
The Elements of Style by William Strunk and E. B. White
The New York Times Manual of Style and Usage: The Official Style Guide Used by the Writers and Editors of the World’s Most Authoritative Newspaper by Allan M. Siegal and William G. Connolly
The Economist Style Guide: The Bestselling Guide to English Usage, The Economist
Effective Writings Skills for Public Relations by John Foster
A History of English Language by Richard Hogg and David Denison
Eighteenth-Century English: Ideology and Change by Raymond Hickey
Political Book titles and images shown:
China’s Security State: Philosophy, Evolution, and Politics by Xuezhi Guo
Politics and the English Language, George Orwell
The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order by Samuel P. Huntington
On China by Henry Kissinger
The End of History and The Last Man by Francis Fukuyama
God’s Empire: Religion and Colonialism in the British World by Hilary M. Carey
George Eliot and the British Empire, by Nancy Henry
A Union for Empire: Political Thought and the Union of 1707 by John Robertson
Understanding the British Empire by Ronald Hyam
Race and Empire in British Politics by Paul B. Rich
The Ideological Origins of the British Empire by David Armitage
1984 by George Orwell
rujiao, daojiao, fojiao, jiao, xue, jia, zhexue, shengren, tetsugaku
Key words: Western language imperialism, philosophy is a syndicate, new imperialism, cultural property theft, end of translation, Rules for Writing, Goebbels Law, lingualism
Who watches the watchmen? Western “China experts” who see the Beijing leadership as corrupt and illegitimate are increasingly becoming a law unto themselves. Policing social media, punishing “apologists” and vilifying anyone who refuses to discuss China solely on Western terms, the evangelists present themselves as social justice warriors. However, China isn’t their country – and the negativity is poisoning everything.
This article was first syndicated by Asia Times on Oct 23, 2014:
Dr. Thorsten J. Pattberg (裴德思 Pei Desi) is a German writer, linguist, and cultural critic. http://www.east-west-dichotomy.com/about-the-author/
You’ve Heard About It:
There ruminates a discussion, from East to West, as to how the perfect American Confucianism ought to be constructed. Should it be transplanted from China; or implanted from within America?
There are two possible sinotypes: One is “Chinese-American Confucianism” and the other is “American-Chinese Confucianism”.
Chinese-American Confucianism means that Chinese language elements slowly sink into American society. American-Chinese Confucianism, on the other hand, refers to English words taking on Chinese meanings.
The difference between those two modes – or directions – of Western sinification, if you will, is considerable, and their advantages and disadvantages must be addressed. […]
Note: This article has first been syndicated by Asia Times on Aug 29, 2013.
After the Great Wars, the United States colonized the German lands and broke their spirit. The Reich was de-nazified, but also de-Germanized, with the result that German culture, German philosophy, and the German sciences all came to a sudden end. Germany was turned into a proper Western nation
That this is so, and never happened otherwise, few politicians have any illusions about, except during this mid-summer of 2014, when the leaders in Berlin witnessed a nationwide protest against the recent massive American CIA/NSA surveillance operation targeting not only suspicious German politicians, terrorists, and businessmen but also the entire German population –just in case. […]
Read full article at Dissident Voice.
Author Thorsten J. Pattberg
Track Title: The Spirit of the German People
Album Title: New Orientalism (Track: 1)
Comments: Special to Dissident Voice, July 25, 2014
Portrait by Li Baodao
Audio Effects: Th_Sounds, Bulbastre, EHR, Moo-lfz
(c) 2014 Pattberg
In China, racism, nationalism, and xenophobia are still rampant; but so is the excessive worship of everything Western – brands, products, and people. That’s because, in the eyes of many Chinese, Western people represent money, power, and privilege -all those things that China once possessed but were taken away by Western powers during the age of imperialism. Chinese who overtly try to westernize are often called ‘fake bananas’ (outside yellow inside white), while white people who eat Asian food and internalized the Chinese language are often labelled ‘Western eggs’ (outside white inside yellow).
Last, since China is constantly patronized, belittled, or demonized by Western media (because it is the West’s ideological enemy and economic and political competitor), those “Western Eggs” who mingle too much with Chinese people are often shunned by Western bosses and the expat society who may perceive them as spies and troublemakers.
All those problems are real in China, and they might be affecting your employment, search for housing, co-operation, and your personal relationships.
“In this critical piece syndicated by Global Research and Big Think, Dr. Thorsten J. Pattberg looks at how the German elites conduct themselves in China. Knowing little or nothing about cultural China, letting alone the language, many German expats, patronizing and full of themselves, behave like colonial masters reenacting the early 20th Century civilizing missions under William II. The story follows the embarrassing 2012 Shanghai trip of Annette Schavan, then-Minister of Education. Having lectured the Chinese on the rule of law and universal ethics, she was forced to resign from her political posts a year later when her doctorate was revoked due to plagiarism.”
Produced by WeToldYouSo1
Not a day passes at the Foreign Correspondents’ Club of China in Beijing without some Washington bureaucrat ringing: “Is he back?” For, as long as China watchers report nothing new from the ideological front, the West will talk money and economy. The day Confucius returns might change all that.
Read about the latest developments in the resurrection of Confucius, feat. Xi Jinping’s visit to the ‘International seminar to mark the 2,565th anniversary of the birth of Confucius’ in the Great Hall of the People. /Via China Daily.
Benjamin A. Elman
“Philology and Exegesis in East Asia: Yan Ruoju’s 閻若璩 (1636-1704)
尚書古文疏證Vs. Zhu Xi’s 朱熹 (1130-1200) 中庸章句序”
Tokyo, September 28, 2014; 15:00 – 18:00
My research colleagues and I have attempted in recent years to present new views of the classical versus vernacular dichotomy that are especially central to the new historiography of India. Based on recent Indian/South Asian findings, we examined alternative frameworks for understanding East Asian languages between 1000 and 1919. Using new sources, making new connections, and reexamining old assumptions, we have asked whether and why East Asian languages should be analyzed in light of a Eurocentric dichotomy. This discussion encouraged us to explore whether European modernity is an appropriate standard at all for East Asia. Individually and collectively, we have sought to establish linkages between societies without making a priori assumptions about the countries’ internal structures or the genealogy of their connections.
Recent scholarship has presented a strong challenge to earlier models for understanding early modern languages in East Asia. Following the lead of Sheldon Pollock, who described the spread of Sanskrit in ways often diametrically opposed to the history of Latin, Peter Kornicki, Wang Sixiang, John Phan, Haruo Shirane, Daniel Trambaiolo, Atsuko Ueda, Shang Wei, and myself present essays in this volume that in aggregate challenge accepted distinctions between classical and vernacular languages in East Asia. I shall attempt to present in this lecture the elements of a new conceptual framework that recognizes that in East Asia the literary and vernacular registers historically interacted and influenced each other as part of a unified, if hybrid, language system that was mastered by Chinese, Japanese, Koreans, and Vietnamese according to their own unique linguistic resources.
Time and venue: See at The Institute for Advanced Studies on Asia; ioc.u-tokyo.ac.jp.
Professor Elman is Professor of East Asian Studies and History at Princeton University (see profile at Princeton.edu).
In case you miss his lecture at Tokyo University on Sept 28, 2014, he will give another lecture at Todai on Oct 9, 2014. If you are into East Asia Studies and if you are in Tokyo, don’t miss this great opportunity to meet one of the world’s leading scholars on East Asian philology and historiography.
Selected work: On Their Own Terms (Harvard University Press), in which Prof. Elman explains how the Chinese collaborated with the Jesuits and, later, with the Protestants, over four centuries, yet ultimately discovered their own paths of producing modern science.
Watch a popular lecture by Benjamin on Youtube:
BEIJING – This year has seen two primates leading at the box office: Sun Wukong, the ‘Monkey King’; and Caesar, boss character in ‘The Planet of the Apes’ franchise. The chest-thumping action aside, let us discuss their very different leadership styles and cultural backgrounds:
Caesar is the irascible alpha-ape on steroids (literally, his high IQ is the result of biotechnological engineering). He is strong and fierce, and although he is shown militarized (on horse, wielding a machine-gun) on the misleading film-posters and –trailers, throughout the movie he acts wise and considerate –until the third act when he is forced to retaliate.
Wukong is not a leader but a principle: a force of nature. He is a Taoist immortal, a Buddhist deity born of a celestial rock, carrying a magical golden hooped rod that allegedly weighs 8 tons. A bit inane, he is rebellious and impatient. He fell off the 33rd floor of heaven -unharmed, because he is the product of 2000 years of advanced Chinese mythology. […]
Image credits: Caesar/Planetoftheapes.wikia.com; Sun Wukong/Colourlessopinions.com
- В АПРЕЛЕ ПРОШЛОГО ГОДА ПЕКИНСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ НАПРАВИЛ МЕНЯ НА ВСТРЕЧУ С ДОЛЖНОСТНЫМИ ЛИЦАМИ ОТ ИНСТИТУТА КОНФУЦИЯ, ГОСПОДИНОМ МА ЦЗЯНЬФЭЕМ – ЗАМЕСТИТЕЛЕМ ДИРЕКТОРА ХАНЬБАНЬ, И ЯН ЦЗИНЬЧЭНОМ, ДИРЕКТОРОМ ПРЕПОДАВАТЕЛЬСКОГО ОТДЕЛА В ШТАБ-КВАРТИРЕ ИНСТИТУТА КОНФУЦИЯ.
ХАНЬБАНЬ НАХОДИТСЯ В ДВАДЦАТИ МИНУТАХ НА ТАКСИ ОТ ПЕКИНСКОГО УНИВЕРСИТЕТА, НА УЛИЦЕ ДЭШЭНМЭН. МЫ ВСТРЕТИЛИСЬ В КАФЕ И ЗАКАЗАЛИ ЧАЙ ПУЭР. ОБА ДЖЕНТЕЛЬМЕНА БЫЛИ ЗНАКОМЫ С МОИМ ЭССЕ «КОНЕЦ ПЕРЕВОДАМ», ГДЕ Я ПЫТАЮСЬ АДАПТИРОВАТЬ ДЛЯ ПОНИМАНИЯ ИНОСТРАНЦЕВ «НЕПЕРЕВОДИМЫЕ» СЛОВА-КОНЦЕПЦИИ КИТАЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА, КАК «ШЭНЖЕНЬ» И «ЦЗЮНЬЦЗЫ».
ХАНЬБАНЬ – ПОДКОНТРОЛЬНОЕ ВЕДОМСТВО МИНИСТЕРСТВА ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ. ГОСПОДИН МА СООБЩИЛ, ЧТО МИНИСТЕРСТВО ПРЕДЛАГАЕТ ОПУБЛИКОВАТЬ МОИ РАБОТЫ, А ИЗДАТЕЛЬСТВО Я ВЫБИРАЮ САМ. Я ВЫБРАЛ CHINA’S FOREIGN LANGUAGE PRESS. ГОСПОДИН ЯН СТАНОВИЛСЯ «СУПЕРВАЙЗЕРОМ» ПРОЕКТА.
SOURCE: EXPARTISTA.COM: ЧТО СОБОЙ ПРЕДСТАВЛЯЕТ КИТАЙСКАЯ «ПРОПАГАНДА» НА ЗАПАДЕ, КОТОРОЙ ПУГАЮТ ИНОСТРАНЦЕВ ВО ВСЕМ МИРЕ, И В ЧЕМ ПРИЧИНА НЕУДАЧ ИНСТИТУТА КОНФУЦИЯ
BERLIN – After the Great Wars, the USA “colonized” the German lands. The Reich (Empire) was de-Nazified, but also de-Germanized, with the result that German culture, German philosophy, and the German sciences all came to an end. Germany became a Western nation. That this is so, few politicians have any illusions, except this mid summer in 2014, when Berlin suddenly protested against the massive CIA/NSA surveillance of the entire German population. And just when Washington feared Germany could make impossible demands for more sovereignty and cultural autonomy, it soon became clear that Berlin, quite to the contrary, wants to JOIN the planetary surveillance apparatus, and as America’s associate and best buddy of the Anglo-Saxon world order at that. The following text is an excerpt from an analysis published with Dissident Voice;
To anyone who lived in Germany during the last thirty years, it became apparent that this nation has turned into a satellite state with tinsel culture. German philosophy, German science, and German literature are all dead. Its archaic Humboldt’sche education system and those Magisters, Diplomas, and Doktorats went broke; now German universities imitate Anglo-Saxon-style credits and Bachelor (BA), Master (MA), and PhD degrees. Cinemas exclusively run Hollywood movies. The Germans are slaves to US propaganda: their news services copy/translate about 90% from Anglophone sources; the younger generations watch Lost, Game of Thrones, Homeland, or Breaking Bad –US television series. Teenagers play X-Box, adore US celebrities, and buy Apple computers or iphones. Office workers sip Starbucks coffee, type on Dell computers, use Microsoft Office software, and in their breaks eat at McDonalds, Pizza Hut, or Kentucky Fried Chicken. Germans are completely dependent of the internet –which (let’s be honest) basically consists of US companies dressed as public services such as Google, Yahoo, Youtube, Facebook, Linkedin, Twitter, Wikipedia, Huffington Post, Ebay, Amazon and hundreds more.
German companies, if they are smart, don’t want to have anything to do with the provincial German ways; they’d rather present themselves as “international,” meaning American -because that’s where all the theories come from, including the rules of global business, financial structures, and monetary regulations, letting alone ethics, language, and corporate culture.
From an historical point of view, Germans are well known to assimilate happily into American culture and apply for US citizenship; yet no American, if he or she understands their country’s status in the world, would readily volunteer to become German.
The English language, meanwhile, has become so dominant in business, politics, entertainment, culture, arts, education, sciences, and the internet, that growing up as a German, in a pure German-language environment, wasting years on mastering the difficult grammar that leads to nowhere.
In fact, the German language has become a serious handicap –hence the German elites sending their offspring abroad: to schools and universities in the US or UK. And if they don’t, they have to master English anyway –only later, harder, and more costly. To prevent the exodus of German education, universities are forced to do two things: a) they must offer degrees for free (no study fees), and b) they must offer English as the language of academic instruction (and if it was only to attract foreign students, who would otherwise pass on Germany and migrate into the Anglophone world). When Germans venture abroad, walking the streets of Shanghai, Bangkok, or New Delhi, they will always first be addressed as Americans. And in a way, they are; they are “Western people,” which, really, is just a polite way of saying they are Accessory Americans.
How Could It Come to This?
If nations have a metaphorical ‘life’, there are some which ruined their youth and adulthood; they can’t be leaders anymore (while others did just fine). Modern Germany, founded in 1871, is such a troubled nation. It came late to the Industrialization; late to the Enlightenment (it has its own, limited version: Aufklärung); to Democracy; too late to Feminism; it was –frankly speaking- a terrible colonial power; it never got the hang of multiculturalism; and it notoriously started both World Wars. When Anglophone intellectuals think of the Germans, they are probably envisioning Dr. Faustus (who sold his soul to the Devil), Dr. Frankenstein (crazy scientists), the Jews and the Nazis, Panzer, Blitzkrieg, and Storm troopers eating bratwurst. Many German loanwords in English have negative connotations, such as dreck, kaput, Anschluss, Gestapo, flak, and Führer.
Consequently, whenever the Germans flex their muscles in this 21st Century, their criminal past catches up with them: all those war-crimes, atrocities, the final solution, the holocaust. Without supervision, and letting them known that they are supervised (!), the Germans would immediately fall back to racist antics, nationalism, and cultural intolerance.
During the period of de-Nazification, German history books were revised and approved by US administrators. Tens of thousands of violent newspeak had to be removed and eradicated from the German language, terms like Aryan, Lebensraum, Mischlinge, and judenrein. Patriotism was stomped. At least three generations of Germans, all deemed Nazi, had to be shamed and dishonored –unprecedented in the history of the world. Despite horrible massacres and crimes against humanity of their own, neither the Americans, nor the British, the Turks, the Slavs, the Arabs, the Persians, not even the Japanese have ever cut off their ancestors or shown similar disloyalty to their fathers and grandfathers. The Germans broke with their criminal family (civilization), abdicated the Germanic tradition (culture), and, naturally, finished and now soulless, readily volunteered for adoption. Germany thus became a “Western nation.”
The occupying forces (USA, United Kingdom, France) supervised the German Basic Law, the ‘Grundgesetz’, in order to ensure liberal democracy, human rights, and the rule of law. In academia, the process of total Westernization was most severe: The Germans witnessed the collapse of all Deutsche Wissenschaften: not only did over one million intellectuals migrate to the United States (taking their disciplines with them), but orphaned German technologies and theories were quickly picked up by more resourceful Anglo-Saxon scholars and translated into English. German literature today is only as good as some Anglophone critic endorsed it. The remains… the unprocessed German knowledge… a useless crapulence. The Germans lost their ‘Deutungshoheit’ –the sovereignty over the definition of (their own) thought. Only if the US discovers it does German knowledge exist.
In contrast, the history of the USA was a single coherent success story. Every German kid wanted to be American, because –as school indoctrination ensued- German past was shameful until, luckily, the Americans came to liberate Europe. That said, Germans are all still trapped in “being Germans,” are they not, with the consequence that when they grew up, their cognitive predicament develop into a cultural psychosis: nasty emotional swings between two extremes: a massive inferiority complex towards everything American, and an ugly demeanor of superiority toward other cultures.
A Conquered Spirit
Under US global leadership the Germans were allowed to rebuild their Länder (with generous US loans) but forbidden to centralize its power (Germany is a Republic and Federation of 16 states, with 16 governments; Berlin one of its poorest in GDP per capita); and just like the Soviet Union created East Germany in its own image, so did the United States a fantastic job in transforming West Germany into a backyard for US capitalists, military deployments, and outlet for the American Dream. The proud Germans, who once defeated the Romans, and who repelled the Napoleonic forces, and who once even build a German Empire of their own, were now officially “relieved” from the heavy burden of continuing History (with a capital ‘H’). To carve out for them a meaningful existence they were encouraged to (or driven into) craftsmanship: assembling automobiles, washing-machines, and words like Elementarfunktionszusammenhänge.
Germany didn’t seriously crash with US interest (not even during the Iraq war) after its occupation in 1948 because it profited from comet-trailing US imperialism into all corners of the world (mostly via UN and NATO) –but terms and conditions applied: Berlin had to prostitute itself to Empire.
Image credits: Reichstag in Berlin/East-West-Dichotomy.com
THE Gretchenfrage is this: Should honest, intelligent parents from a not so-privileged background send their inexperienced offspring to the Ivy League when they know (and have been warned by the likes of Prof. Deresiewicz) that over there their morals and values could be severely compromised? They will see a world so privileged, so spoilt, arrogant, so well-connected, and so over-the-top conceited, that this could seriously affect their mental well-being.
Oh, sure, the kids of the working class may compete on a grade-level with the sons and daughters of the US ruling class, academic dynasties, congressmen, the global plutocracy, Chinese top officials, the Jewish connection, Eastern princes and Arab sheiks; but they may forever feel as social climbers, freaks, outcasts, and they will almost certainly practice self-segregation, not being morally prepared (letting alone equally resourceful) to mingle with the high class and well-bred.
Let me illustrate this culture shock: Imagine you go to high security prison for the extremely “talented” gangsters but refuse to accept the reality of their place being perverted by a certain ethical code that is patriarchy, violence, revenge, and, well, the law of the jungle. You cannot resist the rules of the turf, it’s impossible. It gets to you. So, if you are weak on that ethical code, don’t go to prison. And don’t hang out with people that are affiliated with crime culture.
The Ivy League is also an extreme place, much more difficult to get into than a state prison, granted, but no less perverted by a certain ethical code that is corruption, nepotism, cronyism, and elitism. In a nutshell: a certain kind of people is drawn to this elitist culture to improve their precious skills. You will see and witness things at Harvard, Yale, Stanford, Princeton, etc. that, if you come from a descent and humble background, may be impossible to comprehend -the arrogance, the abundance, the dining, wining, and doing favors. This culture of entitlement is clearly not for everyone.
There are many other excellent universities (and even other countries, imagine that!) that have smart teachers and great libraries and are much more down to earth, more diverse, and better for the soul. In fact, Ivy League, this notion and concept, is quite an American invention. It doesn’t exist anywhere in the world in such an obscene, institutionalized form.
That the Americans indulge in this extreme segregation of their society into the privileged 1% and the 99% human soup is painful to watch, but a deep-seated problem in all Anglo-Saxon cultures, I’m afraid. That’s why they were so successful at imperialism and colonialism, they still are: They grant much more freedom to their subjects (than the Germans, French, or Japanese imperialists of old were ever willing to grant), as long as the 1% stay in power and benefit.
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After all, the Anglo-British still have their monarchs, royalties, the House of Lords, posh grammar schools like Eton, and their snobbish Oxbridge. In such a pathological, rapacious, and impenetrable class society, education isn’t about knowledge (if it ever was) at all, it is solely about privilege. The books on the shelves are all the same. What is studied doesn’t matter as much as where it is studied. And so, many American families -and more so the rich and powerful clans in all corners of the world- would give their life, pay a fortune, and sell their soul to send someone of their own to Harvard. Just for the name of it. And f*** that education!
Image credit: Harvard University/East-West-Dichotomy.com
Shared on Big Think – Dragons and Pandas.
SERIOUSLY, though, many Ivy League students have no soul. That said, what’s the big deal of having no soul when it got you into Harvard or Yale? You can’t have petty moral issues in high society; elites simply see the greater picture anyway; that suffering, inequality, and injustices among the 99% are absolutely necessarily to keep the 1% elite at the top.
And if the elite fail to guard themselves from the climbing masses, they will be replaced by revolutionary elites who then precisely do what all the elites in world history have done before them: guarding and defending their privileges. In that respect, the metaphor of trading one’s soul –as Dr. Faustus did- for supreme privilege in human society is quite accurate.
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It is, therefore, perfectly conceivable, as Prof. William Deresiewicz explained in his essay, that some highly gifted people should evade the devil and put the one life they got to better use, and shun the nasty, snobbish, and ruthlessly privileged high society. Bravo for having the guts to say what an ugly business the Ivy League has become.
I love it when people mistake talent and skill for privilege. It’s like a poor man walking into London’s Buckingham Palace and telling Prince William: I am as capable as you are, I want to be the future king. We would say that that man was deluded, believing in meritocracy where there never was one. Likewise, this silly idea of a educational meritocracy in America:
RELATED Beware of ‘Universal Ethics’
As if the daughter of the local office clerk had anything in common, say, with the daughter of the president of China whose family owns billions of dollars and assets. On the contrary, I would argue that the former doesn’t belong into Harvard, and could be harmed, psychologically speaking, by experiencing the incredible injustice, corruption, nepotism, and the insurmountable gab in human society, by hanging out with the wrong class of people.
If people from ordinary background went to Harvard or any other elite school, this could leave them broken in spirit, disillusioned with humanity, departed from their family values and integrity, and, if they still desperately tried to belong … lose their precious soul in the process.
This was a public comment on Yishai Schwartz‘s New Republic’s ‘An Attack on the Ivy League Is an Attack on Meritocracy Itself‘.
BEIJING – I am as excited as you are that the new Yenching Academy of Peking University (PKU) [北京大学燕京学堂] has been successful established and is now recruiting its first 100 graduate students. This will be the opportunity of a life-time for you, and I strongly encourage any up-and-coming China scholar to apply for this program. You will only regret if you didn’t send your application form:
“The Yenching Academy offers a 1-year Master of Chinese Studies program (in English) designed to prepare an elite class of future leaders to meet the challenges of the 21st century global landscape.” –PKU
Your author had been a visiting student at PKU from 2004 to 2006, and returned for his doctoral studies from 2007 to 2012. Back then, there was nothing like the Yenching scholarship; academic poverty was a big issue (it still is for many Chinese students), letting alone PKU’s guerrilla bureaucracy (graduation procedures required eight signatures and seals). There was also the existential threat of sky-rocketing rents outside campus (now exceeding $1,200/month for a one-bedroom apartment). As to the interview process, we didn’t even use Skype back in 2006, so there was a lot of traveling back-and-forth (obtaining visa was much easier then, though). Luckily (for the new generation of students), Peking University has addressed the issues of funding, housing, and guidance by creating this first-class residential scholarship program.
So, here are my personal 10 Reasons Why You Should Apply For Yenching Academy of Peking University:
1. Peking University is the leading institution of higher education in China.
2. Yenching Academy awards the prestigious ‘Yenching Scholar’ title on top of the usual Peking University Alumnus status (both are life-long privileges). Tip: Do a research on name and origin of “Yenching” to understand its historical significance.
3. Beijing is China’s political, cultural, and financial capital. It has 21 million citizens, more than Australia’s entire population. The student district in the north-west, Haidian, hosts 168 universities. The intellectual atmosphere and sheer concentration of talents will blow your mind.
4. Full scholarship is offered, which is rare. Also, expect “quality” accommodation and teaching facilities, at least relative compared to the majority of the other 20 million or so students enrolled at Chinese universities. This program is so selective; you will feel like a Chosen one, an X-Men, a Confucian ‘Junzi’…
5. Meet some of China’s most renowned scholars, cultural masters, and famous intellectuals from around the world, letting alone world leaders, businessmen, and top politicians. (PKU recently asked visitors Michelle Obama, the America’s First Lady, and Ban Ki-moon, Secretary-General of the United Nations, to write endorsements for Yenching Academy, which they did!)
6. A degree from Peking University is a door opener in China and the world, comparable to a degree from Harvard, only better.
7. The PKU campus is one of the most beautiful in China –lots of gardens (incl. the old Yan Yuan, Minghe Yuan, Jingchun Yuan, and Langrun Yuan, lakes (incl. the Unnamed Lake), plenty of historical spots, histories, and traditional architectures. The Academy is located at the very center of the university, with newly renovated facilities. PKU has over 30 restaurants/canteens, several hotels (including the 5-star Lake View Guesthouse), a theater, several supermarkets, bookstores, a post-office, banks and ATMs, print services, sport facilities, a hospital. Wudaokou, where PKU is located, is brimming with thousands of cafes, fitness clubs, and book shops. Yes, it also has a vibrant night life. What is more, Zhongguancun, the Silicon valley of China, lies just 1 km to the south, boasting New China: electronics, lavish boutiques, shopping malls, 3D cinemas, and hundreds of towering apartment blocks stuffed with start-up companies.
8. Eat Chinese food every day; or try a new restaurant every day. Your scholarship allowance will make this easily affordable. Also, travel during the semester breaks. There is great food everywhere, and of fantastic regional variety. Try Tibetan and Muslim food!
9. Make valuable connections or “guanxi” that will last forever. Your classmates will be “future world leaders” by definition (and program requirement). Register for think tanks in town such as ThinkInChina –a EU-China initiative. Also, don’t forget you are studying among the Chinese elites at PKU. Have you ever felt intimidated by the academic aptitude of East-Asians in general? Well, PKU is their mother-lode! Getting into the Yenching Academy program is like winning the social lottery. [harrumph…].
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10. The time is right for China; and so it is for you: China has already surpassed the United States in terms of GDP adjusted to inland prices. It is determined to create a super-elitist education that puts China in the center of global academic excellence. Being the spearhead of a new era in world history, international relations, global culture, and economics, China is the best place to be right now.
Here are some survival tips that you may want to consider before embarking on this program at Peking University:
- The program is taught in English, so you will have less opportunity to master your Chinese. Also, your classmates (and the expat community) may be more “interesting” people (from the point of view of your “international” career), BUT, remember, they won’t help your Chinese skills much. Also, mingling too much with the expat community in Beijing may be fun (the parties, the activism, the hubris, the snobbism, the arrogance), it can easily become a Faustian pact of Anglophone complacency –in particular for those among you who would rather like to emerge completely in the Chinese culture for that year (Remember, the program is essentially humanities-centered). It may help to arrive in Beijing weeks before the program starts and/or plan for a longer stay after it ends.
- China censors a lot of information. Sign up for a VPN (Virtual Private Network) before you leave for China, so that you can access US internet monopolies such as Facebook, Twitter, Youtube, etc. which are blocked in China. On the other hand, well, try the Chinese services like Baidu, Sina Weibo, Tencent WeChat, Tudou, QQ, Renren, Taobao, and many more. This is highly recommendable anyway, since it will improve your Chinese skill and knowledge incredible fast.
- Get your hands on a copy of The East-West Dichotomy –available in book shop and internet stores in China everywhere. Just saying.
- Plan ahead. A one-year fast-track master program, even at Yenching Academy, is too-short (your peers at PKU normally spend 3 years in a Master program, just so that you know) – so you will have to apply for job opportunities or a doctoral program during that year. (If you want to get your “boshi” (PhD) degree in China, this is the perfect opportunity for you to approach the professors.) In addition, visit the PKU Stanford Center, the Institute for Advanced Humanistic Studies, and the brand-new Worldethics Institute Beijing, and mark global events such as the Beijing Forum in your calendar. Once on campus, find out about important public lectures at lectures.pku.edu.cn (works only with a PKU-account).
- Beware of the bombast. That is easier said than done. Even Harvard University at times looks whimsical and provincial compared to Peking University. Europe, meanwhile, with the exception of Oxbridge in the UK, has no answer to Chinese elite universities. Moreover, China is an autocratic society where its top leaders are accountable to no one, meaning they can and will throw splendid ceremonies and conferences which you probably never experienced before (and will always want to come back for). To the savage critics, phrases like “nationalism” and “ethnic chauvinism” easily come to mind. To be true, the cultural engineers and faculty of Yenching Academy are first and foremost celebrating and congratulating themselves: “internationally reputed academic luminaries,” “most renowned and influential,” and “fellows with worldwide recognition.” Effectuating Xi Jinping’s notion of ‘conference diplomacy’, PKU’s president Wang Enge and his sages are obsessed with inviting foreign celebrities and super-scholars (only world leading universities qualify) to witness the spectacle of China’s cultural rejuvenation -anxious and aghast. “Why don’t we have 5 star hotels at our university?” or “Why can’t we build world-class programs like this overnight?” –those are common reactions from German, Japanese, and Australian professors your author gathered. [Read this critical account by Professor Shigeto Sonoda] It is the Who-is-who of China scholarship that attended several precluding international symposiums, donation ceremonies, and conferences leading up the inaugural ceremony on May 5, 2014. Already, the academic world –especially in the Pacific region- is enviously comet-trailing Peking University, trying to book seats in the front row. Will the expectation match the pomp? Who knows. One thing is for sure, once you are accepted here, there will be a lot of prestige, name-dropping, status-anxiety, and valuable insights into China’s psyche that will put you out of your humble orbit permanently.
- Ah, and yeah, if you feel lost and overwhelmed in this country-sized city, read some Beijing Survival Tips from Kaiser Kuo and Ryan McLaughlin. (Works even better in hindsight.)
Image credits: east-west-dichotomy.com
Dr. Thorsten J. Pattberg (裴德思 Pei Desi) is a German writer, linguist, and cultural critic. He graduated from The Institute of World Literature, Peking University, and is the author of The East-West Dichotomy (2013), Shengren (2011), Inside Peking University (2012), and the forthcoming Knowledge is a Polyglot (2014). He is currently a Visiting Fellow at The Institute for Advanced Studies on Asia, The University of Tokyo.
LOVERS of the Big Think will rejoice at hearing about the world’s largest migration of brain:
BEIJING – Thousands of philosophers are expected to descend upon China’s capital in 2018 in order to fete the queen of all disciplines (the king is science). Here are some thoughts about the next 24th World Congress of Philosophy, to be hosted byPeking University.
With no other application to consider –this is not a joke, no other country or city wanted to host a mass think-tank like this (the logistics, the security, and the non-profit!)- the symbolism couldn’t be any more… symbolic –the previous Congress was held in Greece -Athens, the cradle of occidental philosophy (in 2008, it was held in Korea):
Seeing things in this way we can appreciate the significance of a Parthian — Sassanian — Arabian — Turkman saying: “The Greeks have only one eye and only the Chinese have two eyes.” Josafa Barbaro had learned such a saying earlier in Persia, in 1471 and 1474. Around that time he also heard the same idea expressed in an abstruse manner: “The Greeks only understand theories, but the Chinese are the people who own the technologies.” –Ji Xianlin
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While modern Greece remains but a tinsel culture, China, the only ancient civilization still standing, in many ways has turned into the world’s greatest phenomenon. And while ‘philosophy’ –this idea and concept- may have originated in the Polis, it really prospered under Christianity in Northern Europe, and arrived in China (where it is called zhexue) proper in the late 18th century (via Japan, which was eager to catch up with the West first). China, to this day, has its own jia, jiao, and xue (schools, teachings, and disciplines) –many of whom are virtually unknown in the West.
The question is, can China -with its largely untapped resources, ideas, and innovations- revive the once exceedingly gorgeous but now sadly torpid and dour discipline? Especially academic philosophy has estranged itself from the public, and alienated many academics. Moreover, its tedious methodologies and terminologiesare profoundly European, thus utterly biased. What can China do about it?
Indeed, at that time in the world, only China and Greece enjoyed a most prominent and magnificent culture. And it is high time that those handfuls of scholars or learners or whatever “-ers” in China who inevitably talk about nothing else but the Greek tradition come to an awakening. –Ji Xianlin
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The time for China is right…
True, the World Congress of Philosophy, to be held every 5 years under the auspices of FISP (International Federation of Philosophical Societies), doesn’t pull the masses like the Olympic Games. It’s not even a competition –although it’s rewarding to think of THE fastest, THE strongest, and THE ONE with the biggest feet… One thing is for sure: there will be more disciplines and panels than ever before, largely because hundreds of Chinese, but also Indian, Persian, American… and other Asian thinkers, who will outnumber their European peers by far, need to be given adequate space.
There were times when the Chinese felt big about themselves, such as the Qing Empire at its heyday, an empire which, succumbing itself later to the prowess of the fleets and the cannons of the West, fell invariably prostrate at the feet of the West. But, today the Chinese nation, having been jolted awake, is striving to reassert itself among the nations of the world. –Ji Xianlin
The time for Beijing has come…
By fair estimates, given that EVERYONE wants to visit China these days, there may be up to 2,500 “philosophers” filing in their visa forms. Many universities (especially within China) will send entourages, complete with translators, secretaries, media, and their students.
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Where will they all sleep and dine? How do philosophers party? What should we print on the pillows and promotional cups? Do we really have to pay thousands of student volunteers –lest some Western philodox raises questions about exploitation and human rights? Can critics practice free speech? (Sure they can, PKU is surprisingly liberal).
The cost? A secret, but it is rumored that PKU guaranteed a basket of one million dollars. It may be not enough, however, the (preliminary) list of sponsors is arleady impressive, including the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS), Tsinghua University, Fudan University, and two dozen other top schools and associations.
The historical significance of this event aside, the organizers in China, in line with Beijing’s ‘host diplomacy’, are poised to blow this out of proportion –in a good way: “Our invitation will be extended to Axial-Age civilizations (Greek, Judaic, Hindu, and Chinese), historical traditions (notably Christian, Islamic, Jain, Sikh, Baha’i), forms of spirituality in Africa and indigenous religions, and other newly emerging modes of philosophical inquiries as well as well-established disciplines.” [Read the entire proposal HERE]
I am inclined to say that the one eye of the Greeks and their descendants later on gradually turned into two eyes; however, these two eyes, as extremity always results in antithesis, are now about to close. The Chinese eyes, after closing for a while, are now about to open up. –Ji Xianlin
You can’t get more Big Think than that, can you? Let’s earmark Beijing in 2018; and hope to see some of you in China in the future!
BEIJING – In overpopulated, extremely competitive, and edu-obsessional society like China, it is ridiculously difficult to find yourself an unoccupied space, carving out a niche, or pursuing a profession that isn’t fiercely contested, letting alone staying in there alone for too long.
China’s universities are no different, having geared up for mass-producing scholars of all kinds, the more the better… almost. Even Peking University, by the way, agrees with mass-education, having standardized its graduation proceedings as ‘group’ activities -fat chance you will be sitting courses alone, ever.
The idea that there could be just one student on the official ‘group photo’ didn’t occur to administrators. So, when Xue Yifan (薛逸凡), of the Yuanpei Institute for Paleontology at Peking University, who was latter called “the loneliest graduate” by Global Times, posted her graduation ‘group photo’ online, she attracted A LOT of attention from micro-bloggers and even state media, many who see her as model student, a heroine of scientific knowledge in a rare field that is apparently little understood by most students and their parents when selecting a university major.
Ms Xue didn’t expect the media attention at all; she appeared humble but professional in interviews, looking for the next challenges ahead of her, possibly aiming at a career in academia.
That said, whatever road she takes in life, being among the few chosen ones is undoubtedly beneficial, especially in China. Being the only one, however… priceless!
READ FULL ARTICLE How A Graduation Photo Can Make You Famous In China (Big Think)
BEIJING/TOKYO – When Chinese Uyghur Muslim activists accuse China’s central government of “cultural genocide” against its minority cultures, they usually gets applauded (letting alone financial supported and celebrated as ‘human rights’ heroes) by the entire Western press. After all, any support of China’s dissidents is helpful to undermine Chinese politics and the country’s social stability. But, careful what’s locked up in the dark attic of Western history… the Anglophone world -on all accounts of Imperialism, Colonialism, and Globalization- is by far the worst offender of cultural genocide everywhere on the planet, at least from a prospective of the lovers of cultural pluralism and linguistic diversity; to such an obvious extend, to be true, that several national governments including China, India, Iran, and Japan (but also Germany and France) have recently expressed deep regrets over their vanishing (cultural) significance in the world -naturally to the supreme benefit the vast US-Anglo-Saxon empire stretching from the arts and entertainment, over politics and media, to the sciences and the humanities.
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Most ‘knowledge’ is English now; or else foreign ideas must be expressed in the English language: What is not known in the West, is no knowledge at all. Most linguists such as Wade Davis, the Canadian anthropologist, lament the general decline of cultural diversity and in particular linguistic diversity; although they have a hard time to explain or define what it is exactly what is lost when translation occurs (from the foreign tongue into the English imperial parlance, say). While the Uyghurs in China have ethical reasons to complain against “cultural genocide” by Mandarin speakers, Western English media largely have little to no moral currency against Mandarin speakers whatsoever, it seems, because the West itself precisely is best at destroying minority cultures -one by one in fact, until nothing is left, and all world history is owned by Western writers -all other cultures: forgone and forgotten.
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The only way, as I see it, is to allow those cultures and their languages left in the world to freely participate in world history. (So far, national dictionaries and Western editorial language policies are universally discriminating against foreign terms.) But to do that, to free the languages, they need the universal right to express their ideas in their own words -I am referring of course to the most important key words unique to their cultural inventiveness. Until the benign but ultimately culturally ignorant West, because it is the supreme imperialist and colonial master of humanity, allows the world’s vocabularies to freely flow and mix with the English lexicon, no man and woman is truly free from cruel cultural imperialism.
To be precise, it is not enough to liberate the races, the genders, the people from foreign oppression if their words are shunned, censored, and omitted from world history. The liberation of the world’s vocabularies is going to be next revolutionary step toward freedom of expression. And we will not rest nor sleep but an hour too long until we are getting there…
Dr. Pattberg has written and published extensively about Global language,Competition for terminologies, and the End of translation. He is also active in promoting Confucianism, in particular Chinese terminologies, on a global scale. Please also follow him on Big Think, Dragons and Pandas.
Торстен, как вам удалось получить место в Институте Конфуция? Ведь, как известно, организация представляет собой в некоторой степени закрытый бастион для иностранцев.
В апреле прошлого года Пекинский университет направил меня на встречу с должностными лицами от Института Конфуция: господином Ма Цзяньфэем, заместителем директора Ханьбаня, и Ян Цзиньчэном, директором преподавательского отдела в штаб-квартире Института Конфуция.
Ханьбань находится в двадцати минутах езды на такси от Пекинского университета, на улице Дэшэнмэн. Мы встретились в кафе и заказали чай пуэр. Оба джентльмена были знакомы с моим эссе «Конец переводам», где я пытаюсь адаптировать для понимания иностранцев «непереводимые» слова-концепции китайского языка, как, например, «шэнжэнь»1 и «цзюньцзы»2 .
Ханьбань – подконтрольное ведомство Министерства образования. Господин Ма сообщил, что министерство предлагает опубликовать мои работы, а издательство я выбираю сам. Я выбрал China’s Foreign Language Press. Господин Ян становился «супервайзером» проекта.
Что вы считаете главным достижением Института Конфуция за последние годы?
Институт Конфуция существует с 2004 года, это культурный ответ немецкому Институту Гете (основан в 1951 году), Британскому совету (существует с 1934 года) и «Альянс Франсез» (основан в 1883 году, но работает он по несколько другой модели). Успех ИК заключается в простых цифрах: уже сегодня открыто более 350 Институтов Конфуция по всему миру, на сотню больше, чем Британских советов или Институтов Гете.
В то время как мировой рынок уже перенасыщен британской и немецкой культурой, для Китая еще есть простор. Ханьбань стремится довести число Институтов Конфуция до 1000. Но эффективно ли работает Институт Конфуция? В этом я не уверен.
Какие же инструменты использует ИК для своей пропаганды? Щедрые гранты на обучение, бесплатные материалы и хорошо подготовленный преподавательский состав – ведь это еще не все.
ИК «завоевывает души» не простых студентов, а начинает с административных верхов иностранных вузов: деканов, профессоров, администраторов. Именно поэтому ИК ассоциируют с иностранными университетами. Это дает Китаю преимущества. Кроме того, любой ИК за рубежом имеет двух глав: декана-китайца и декана-иностранца.
Это великолепная стратегия. Я своими глазами наблюдал, как западные специалисты борются за престижные посты «директора Института Конфуция страны Х для Университета Y». Это неизбежно ведет к повышению по службе в самом Университете Y – от неизвестного преподавателя до декана. Потому что, когда речь идет о Китае, полумеры неприемлемы. Выгоды такого сотрудничества очевидны: связь с Министерством образования Китая, упрощенный визовый режим, авиабилеты, конференции, банкеты и дегустация вин. Естественно, новоявленный декан привлечет своих студентов в ИК. Это подход «верхи-низы» в авторитарном стиле.
В чем причины неудач ИК на Западе?
Честно говоря, не думаю, что Институт Конфуция имеет большой успех в плане создания привлекательного имиджа китайской культуры. Запад принес свои ценности в Китай, в их числе такие концепции, как демократия, права человека, управление по закону, философия, наука, капитализм и коммунизм. В этом и заключалась настоящая «мягкая сила». Китаю, с другой стороны, нечего дать взамен. В Институте Конфуция преподают китайский язык, то есть в понимании Запада студенты учат китайские слова. Они переводят на китайский слово «демократия» – «миньчжу чжуи». Если бы Институт Конфуция был Британским советом или Институтом Гете, он бы занимался продвижением уникальных китайских концепций, как Вэнмин, Датун и Чжуцзя (концепции, объясняющие «сущность цивилизованного общества», «спокойствие в обществе», «практичное управление/благожелательность народа»).
Но нет, в учебниках ИК дается «перевод» на западный манер – «цивилизация, гармония и конфуцианство». Это копия «один в один» западных концепций!
До тех пор, пока китайские «пропагандисты» не решили для самих себя, в чем должна состоять суть Китая, Институт Конфуция сам будет вестернизироваться и терпеть поражение. Они могут открыть еще десять тысяч ИК, это будет просто замечательно воспринято на Западе.
Институт Конфуция стал мишенью для критики западных СМИ и академического сообщества. К примеру, ему ставят в вину пропаганду ценностей компартии Китая, а не распространение ценностей конфуцианства, между которыми, кстати говоря, лежит пропасть. Что вы сможете сказать о критике ИК на Западе?
Пока Китай будет выбрасывать на ветер миллиарды юаней на финансирование Институтов Конфуция, все будет спокойно. Какой смысл критиковать спонсора? Кроме того, как я говорил ранее, на сегодняшний день спрос на ИК из зарубежных университетов не уменьшается, поскольку академики и политики явно стремятся усилить свой вес за счет связей с госструктурой Китая.
Обвинения строятся на том, что Институт Конфуция напрямую связан с управленческим аппаратом. Сама цель концепции «мягкой силы», способствующей улучшению имиджа нации, теряет всякий смысл, так как в глазах общественности это проправительственная пропаганда. Что вы на это скажете?
Разумеется, Институты Конфуция финансируются китайским правительством, так же как Институт Гете финансируется правительством Германии, а Британский совет – правительством Великобритании. Только на бумаге они выглядят как неправительственные организации (NGO). То же самое происходит со многими западными «неправительственными организациями» в Китае, например DAAD (крупнейшая в мире организация академического обмена – принадлежит правительству Германии. – Прим. ред.).
Я всегда говорю своим студентам: «Почему у европейских стран такое мощное влияние во всем мире? Все просто: ими была придумана система современного общества, и они знают рычаги управления».
ИК будет оставаться проправительственной организацией, получать инструкции от Ханьбаня и министерств, точно так же будут работать и их западные «коллеги» в Китае, пропагандируя вестернизацию. Нет ничего плохого в том, чтобы придерживаться своих принципов. При этом мирное сосуществование возможно. Чтобы избежать дальнейшей политизированности, нужен диалог, взаимодоверие и больше прозрачности. Сам Конфуций учил в своей политической теории: «Реши одну задачу – и ты избежишь сотен проблем».
1 «Шэнжэнь» – одна из важнейших концепций китайской цивилизации, условно термин можно перевести как «мудрость», «благость». Соответственно, речь идет о мудрости китайской цивилизации в противовес иноземным «варварам».
2 «Цзюньцзы» – «благородный муж», концепция благочестивого поведения в конфуцианстве.
Торстен Паттберг – Автор книги «Шэнжэнь» и «Дихотомия Восток-Запад»
“If you think about Chinese company names and brands such as 微波 Weibo, 百度 Baidu, 海尔 Hai’er, the 以崚药业 Yiling Group, the 大商集团 Dashang Group, 华联集团 Hualian Group (it’s a supermarket chain), and 上海滩 Shanghai Tang, etc., these are all Chinese brand names. What they do is they opt for a ‘second’ -a [transliterated] English name…”
Beida vs Tsinghua – China’s world class universities and global players
BEIJING– Beida and Tsinghua are the two most prominent universities in China, a country of 1.35 billion people. (There are many other famous ones like Nanjing University, Renmin, or Fudan University, but for the scope of this article let us focus on these two.) Let’s make no mistake, although Beida and Tsinghua are (just) ranked no 46 and 52 in the world according the THE rankings 2013 (Hong Kong University ranks no 35, but is listed separately [it’s a British ranking, and HK was a former colony]), nevertheless these two are powerful global players.
The “Harvard of China”
Peking University(short: Beida, from “Beijing Daxue”) is the center of China’s humanities and often called “the Harvard of China” (or, from a Chinese point of view, Harvard is called “the Beida of America”), while Tsinghua is strongest in engineering and the sciences, and known as “the MIT of China.”
Tsinghua is wealthier and looks typical American, at least the main campus. Beida has its beautiful lake and is home to China’s greatest modern thinkers and philosophers like Gu Hongming, Lu Xun, Mao Zedong, Ji Xianlin, and Hu Shi. The list goes on.
Increasingly, the two are testing their prerogatives and are competing for China’s top spot and for attracting best and brightest students in all the fields. They established their own business schools, language schools for foreigners, etc.
Tsinghua’s new leadership programme
Stephen A. Schwarzman, the US billionaire and chairman of Blackstone Group, believes that Tsinghua will take the lead in the future. He may be right. China’s new president, Xi Jinping , is a Tsinghua graduate (the Premier, Li Keqiang, is from Beida), so are many of the technocrats in the Communist Party that rules China.
Tsinghua has an edge in research and technology, and Schwarzman donates $300m into a new leadership programme that wants future global leaders from the US and elsewhere to come to Wu Daokou in Haidian district of Beijing in order to experience Chinese elite education and the ‘guanxi’ or “connections” it brings along. After all, this century is deemed by many as the Chinese one.
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Haidian – Beijing’s university district
Beida will watch this new US investment carefully. Both universities float on cash and invite famous people from abroad. Political leaders like Tony Blair have a tough time choosing which one to visit and deliver their keynote speeches. (David Beckham recently visited Beida). Gigantic conference centers like Beida’s ‘New Global Village’ with dozens of apartment blocks were built; even a museum restaurant, and Beida’s new Lake View Hotel (which charges up to $500 a night).
Tsinghua parades its mighty TUS Park facing Chengfu Road, the High Street of Wu Daokou, a couple of glassy skyscrapers that house Google, Baidu, and Deutsche Bank, among others. Beida has its own metro station named after it. Each campus is as huge as entire districts in some European capitals.
Tsinghua lies just across the street from Beida, and towers prominently among 168 (!) other institutes of higher education in Haidian. Chinese universities are campus university (unlike, say, European universities) and are closed communities with their own hospitals, supermarkets, and village-sized dormitories. They are massively subsidized by the central government to keep the food and housing prices on-campus in check. It’s a cheap world as long as one does not leave the campuses.
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China’s universities aim to become world class universities
But the massive increase of students over the past 20 years, including hundreds of thousands of foreign students (there are 60.000 Koreans living in Wu Daokou), are pushing the people into the local surrounding communities like Zhongguancun, the Silicon Valley of China.
For many observes it does not really matters which university comes ahead in 2014. All competition is good for China, and for all those students who come here.
Cross-posted at Dragons and Pandas, Big Think.
Image credit: Beida vs Tsinghua/east-west-dichotomy.com
TAIPEI/TOKYO – What is this East-Asian obsession with blades and stabbings that has perverted these otherwise harmonious quarters of Confucian legacy?
The knife seems to be the preferred device of killing frenzies in those countries that restrict or ban firearms. Shooting fall-outs are rare from Beijing to Hong Kong, from Shanghai to Seoul, from Hong Kong to Tokyo. So, the hoodlums go out instead with kitchen blades, cleavers, and jackknives.
The latest killings happened just today at around 4 pm in a Taipei subway station. A 21-years old man allegedly boarded a crowded section of the train and knifed down at least 25 passengers, four of whom died in their blood. A relative in law of your author was struck three times –in her defense arm, her back, and, when she escaped, her fleeting ankle. She is in hospital, in stable condition, but still under shock. So is the entire island of Taiwan. Such random eruptions of violence are relatively rare in orderly Taipei, they say. Now they know it can happen any time.
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Stabbings are far more common in mainland China, although not always as widely reported as the Henan school knife attack in 2012 that witnessed 23 (barely out of kindergarten) kids with severe stab wounds. You can watch the video here (warning: it’s gruesome!). The perpetrator was clinical insane, or so he confessed. Henan authorities promptly advised all schools to hire security guards, which is –as everyone familiar with China knows –a gargantuan task of impossible dimensions –Henan alone administers 100 million citizens.
There are many more stabbings to speak of, in fact, just toady there occurred another knife massacre in the city of Lushan of Henan province. Seven neighbors lost their lives to a lunatic. Small villages are in particular vulnerable. Cutlery is sold left and right in the streets.
And then there was the Kunming Mass Stabbing in March 2014. It was so brutal and violent in scope and execution –the state denounced it as terrorist attack. Over 130 people were slashed, hacked, and ended, leaving 29 dead. The stabbers, four of them shot on the scene, came from Xinjiang, a region where –because of ethnical and political tensions- stabbings occur frequently.
Knives are often worn in public in Xinjiang and Tibetan, and are in fact among the most popular souvenirs. Yet, of course, stabbings are most media-effective if they occur in public places in the big cities. Just weeks after the Kunming massacre, for example, six people were gruesomely stabbed down at Guangzhou Railway Station in Guangdong.
Blades are typically the preferred fetish of death of serial killers, although the one or other shovel, hammer, or axe is frequently thrown in. Your author still recalls the time at Fudan University of Shanghai in summer 2003 when the killing spree of Yang Zhiya had kept the region in fear. He had early childhood dreams of murder and rape, his family concurred; and in 2000 the thug set out on his bike, smashing, chopping, and annihilating entire families on his trip. (He was executed in 2014, just three month after his arrest, a fast-track to ease the pain of the nation.)
Korea is constantly on knife-alert, too. True, stabbing rampages such as the 2008 Seoul incident are still uncommon. Yet, the country is under constant terror by frequent so-called rush-hour knifings (or crowd-stabbing, if you will).
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Tokyo, as well, had its unfair share of mayhem. The Japanese, stricken already by the highest suicide rate anywhere in this galaxy, and smitten by frequent earthquakes and tsunamis, are forever haunted by images of Tomohiro Kato, a 25-year-old ‘otaku’ (loosely translated as geek or nerd) drove a truck into a crowd at Tokyo’s busy Akihabara district (known as Electronic Town, popular with young people and tourists). After he steamrolled the pedestrians, he jumped out of the vehicle and stabbed some more. Seven people died. The list of knife crimes in Japan –even if the Yakuza is excluded- is wickedly long.
The imagery of knife-wielding “losers” –mostly young, male, underemployed, mentally ill- haunts East Asian citizens during their rush-hours, partly because there are potentially so many of them.
As one psychologist at Seoul National University once quipped it:
“Pent-up frustration and rage in a highly competitive society have caused the recent attacks against indiscriminate victims, and this was compounded by copy-cat behavior.”
If this is a correct observation, and we have reason to think it is, then governments have to address the causes of this spreading social sickness, and do so quickly.
It is very wise of East Asian authorities to categorically outlaw the possession of guns and rifles. But how do they prevent dangerous men from visiting a kitchen.
Image credit: Glad he came in peace/(c) RF Parsley/@sanverde
“This phenomenon, termed “zero translation”, has sparked a fierce debate – why is that so important for some people in China that everything has a Chinese word?” –Christina Boutrup, Globus Kina
A Notion In Favor Of Limiting Translation
First of all, it is a late spring early summer topic. We have similar discussions about ‘national languages’ –and the protection of thereof- in German and French media, too. Every year, in fact. The main concern is this: We have A LOT of English words coming in. What do we do about it?!
READ MORE The End of Translation (in Asia Times)
It is unfortunate that those Chinese intellectuals talks about ‘purity’ and ‘vitality’ of culture and language. That is so 20th-Century. Imagine they would also do the talking about race and ethnicity.
Here, the ideology is NOT multiculturalism –it is assimilation. And one way, the BEST WAY, is by translation; that’s because THEN our eyes and ears are met with the familiar and the convenient.
“The concept of “zero translation” is introduced both as a translation strategy for overcoming the unbridgeable differences between languages, and as a means of safeguarding the general validity of translatability as the theoretical cornerstone of translation.” –Qiu Maoru, 中国翻译》2001年1月第22卷第1期（P24-27）
Liberating the World’s Vocabularies
Critics are right, they should PROTECT their cultures and languages (at least to a certain degree), because that’s apparently what everyone is doing. We are competing for our sovereignty over thought and definitions. Remember George Orwell’s Six Rules for Good Writing: Rule No. 5: “Never use a foreign phrase, word, or a jargon if you can think of an everyday English equivalent.”
ALL major Anglophone media apply those rules, be it The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, or The Economist, and so on. They want to expand THEIR OWN culture, not surrender it. Nationalists in China have those worries, too.
Having said all this, however, most young people are not having any of it. They want to see all foreign words liberated. It’s a good thing.
“The current lack of Chinese translation for new English terms is due to an increasing interest in and respect for Western culture. More Chinese people can speak English now and they generally want to use English words where appropriate in normal conversation.” –Empowerlingua.com
Aesthetics of Multi-layered Scripts
The use of English words in Chinese writings looks strange at first. This is aggravated by the fact that Chinese uses pictographs, not letters. So, English words do really pop out and may irritate. That it works nevertheless is shown in Japan, where four scriptures form a highly sophisticated mish-mash: Hiragana for Japanese readings; Katakana for foreign loanwords; Kanji as pictographs introduced from China in the 5h century; and the Roman alphabet for adopted names.
I am in favor of ending or limiting translation.
Thorsten Pattberg (D.Litt.) is the author of The East-West Dichotomy (China’s Foreign Language Press, 2013) and the forthcoming Knowledge is a Polyglot – The Future of Global Language (Hanban/Foreign Language Press, 2014). He can be reached at email@example.com. @worldethics
Idiosyncreatures – How Many More Of China’s Critters Can The English Language Swallow?
via Big Think
Should Chinese creatures be incorporated into Anglo-Saxon parlance, and if so, where to draw the line in number and color? This goes beyond linguistic pedantry and serves as nucleus for life-and-death questions about global language and –if not properly addressed- a potential source of academic conflict (e. g. How about nextcensoring YOUR beloved critters out of world history? Leprechauns, pixies -anyone? )
It’s a simple but profoundly complex issue: How much pluralism and foreign knowledge should we permit to exist? China has greatly enriched the world of fairy tales and legends with fantastic concepts such as mogwai (you remember the film ‘Gremlins’?), but also less known characters such as the ao, the bixie, the longma, thepixiu, the fenghuang, and the qilin –to name but a few.
Translation often doesn’t do foreign ideas justice. How boring and unimaginative when a bixie becomes a chimera; an ao a turtle; a pixiu a winged lion; a fenghuang a phoenix, and a qilin just another unicorn? while in fact they are often very different, not only apparently but also historically. Imagine a world without Brother Grimm’s Fairy Tales (its richness of Germanic vocabularies and terms). That’s right, Chinese folkloric idiosyncreatures are as fascinating, and its family tree no less gorgeous and impressive, than European beasts of fur and claws.