Shengren – Appendices

Table 1: Traits of the Sage: Some of the most important character traits (in English language) of the Chinese sheng(ren) or ‘Chinese sage’ could be summarized as the following, according to Confucius, Mencius, Laozi, Mozi, Tu, Gu, Taylor, Schwarz (all taken from quotes in this text):

Traits of the Sage
pursuing the course of the mean, spiritual being, highest virtue, love for learning, respectfulness, gentility, kindness, practice propriety, wisdom, harmony, balance, self-cultivation, filial piety, ancestor worship, spiritual teachings (meditation, mind-body practice), awareness of oneness, ideal personality, high level of human perfection, ordering and harmonizing of the world, embracing the way (the One), a model for the empire, modest, conspicuous, not consider himself right, does not content, does not boast, at peace with others, never losing sight of the humanity that unites him with all other members of society

Table 2: Confucius in Wikipedia (first paragraph of each article, last access: 06/2010; underlines by this author):

English Wikipedia German Wikipedia Chinese Wikipedia French Wikipedia
Confucius (Chinese: 孔子; pinyin: Kǒn zǐ; Wade-Giles: K’ung-tzu, or Chinese: 孔夫子; pinyin: Kǒng Fūzǐ; Wade-Giles: K’ung-fu-tzu), literally ‘Master Kong,’[1] (traditionally September 28, 551 BCE – 479 BCE)[2][3] was a Chinese thinker and social philosopher, whose teachings and philosophy have deeply influenced Chinese, Korean, Japanese and Vietnamese thought and life. Konfuzius – latinisiert aus 孔夫子, Kǒng Fūzǐ, W.-G. K’ung-fu-tzu ‘Lehrmeister Kong,’ (chin. 孔子, Kǒng Zǐ, W.-G. K’ung-tzǔ ‘Meister Kong,’ auch als Kung-tse[1] oder Kong-tse[2] transkribiert) – war ein chinesischer Philosoph zur Zeit der Östlichen Zhou-Dynastie. Er lebte vermutlich von 551 v. Chr. bis 479 v. Chr. und wurde unter dem Namen Kong Qiu ( 孔丘, W.-G. K’ung Ch’iu) in der Stadt Qufu im chinesischen Staat Lu (der heutigen Provinz Shandong) geboren, wo er auch starb.

 

孔子(前551年9月28日-前479年4月11日),子姓,[1]孔氏,名丘[2],字仲尼,鲁(今中國山东曲阜)人,中国春秋末期的思想家教育家。孔子是中华文化中的核心学说儒家的首代祖師,集華夏上古文化之大成,在世時已被譽為’天縱之聖’、’天之木鐸’,是當時社會上最博學者之一,並且被后世统治者尊为聖人至聖[3]、至聖先師、万世师表。孔子和他创立的儒家思想对中国和朝鮮半島、日本、越南等地區有深远的影响,這些地區又被稱爲儒家文化圈.

 

Confucius (Chin.: 孔夫子, pinyin: kǒngfūzǐ, Wade-Giles: K’ung-fu-tzu ou bien 孔子, pinyin: kǒngzǐ), né le 28 septembre 551 av. J.-C. à Zou (陬) et mort le 11 mai 479 av. J.-C. à Qufu (曲阜), est le personnage historique ayant le plus marqué la civilisation chinoise. Considéré comme le premier «éducateur» de la Chine, son enseignement a donné naissance au confucianisme, une doctrine politique et sociale qui a été érigée en ‘religion d’État’ dès la dynastie Han et qui ne fut officiellement bannie qu’au début du XXe siècle. […] il est généralement appelé Kǒngzǐ (孔子) ou Kǒng Fūzǐ (孔夫子) par les Chinois, ce qui signifie «Maître Kong» et qui a été latinisé en ‘Confucius’ par les Jésuites.

Table 3: Shengren in German Online Sources (underlines by this author):

Source Translation of shengren English Meaning
Zeno.org – The Largest German Open Library Online (2011)/ based on Wilhelm, Richard (1914): Kungfutse: Lun Yu – Gespräche, Eugen-Diederichs-Verlag, Düsseldorf/Köln 1.14.41 Wonach der Philosoph trachtet: Der Meister sprach: Ein Edler, der […] The philosopher

A noble (man)…

Brockhaus (1906-1911), Brockhaus’ Kleines Konversations-Lexikon, 5th edition, Vol. 1, Brockhaus, Leipzig, in zeno.org Konfuzius […], chines. Philosoph und Religionslehrer […] Chinese philosopher and religious leader
Kramers, Robert Paul (1979), Konfuzius, Chinas entthronter Heiliger?, Lang, Bern Chinas entthronter Heiliger China’s dethroned saint
Flad, Johann (1904), Konfuzius, der heilige Chinas in christlicher Beleuchtung, C. Belser, Zürich Konfuzius, der heilige Chinas […] The holy man of China…
Schwanfelder, Werner (2006), Konfuzius im Management: Werte und Weisheit im 21. Jahrhundert, Campus Verlag, Frankfurt Philosoph

Berater

Ratgeber seit 2500 Jahren

Philosopher

Coach, Counselor for 2500 years

Stange, Hans. O. H. (1965-2004), 14th edition, Die Weisheiten des Konfuzius – Aus dem chinesischen Urtext übertragen, Insel Verlag, Berlin Der Edle The noble (man)
Fiederling, Johannes (2009), Konfuzius im Herzen – Alte Weisheiten für die moderne Welt, Translation of Yu Dan’s Confucius – From the Heart: Ancient Wisdom for Today’s World, Droemer/Knaur, München Der Edle The noble (man)
Cordes, Ulrike (2009), Die Berliner Literaturkritik, 1st Sep 2009, ww.berlinerliteraturkritik.de Der chinesische Wandergelehrte

Ideal des Edlen

The Chinese Travel Scholar

The ideal of the Noble (man)

Rötz, Heiner (1994, 2006), Konfuzius, 3. edition, Verlag C. H. Beck, München

 

Der Paedagoge, der verhinderte Politiker, der Philosoph

‘hat Konfuzius sich nicht als grossen ‘Denker’ gesehen […]

Moralische Person

[…] als Ziel, ein <sheng-ren>>, ein <Genius> bzw. <Heiliger> zu werden […]

The educator, the frustrated politician, the philosoph

‘Confucius did not consider himself a great ‘thinker’

Person of high morals

[…] the goal is to become a <shengren>, a <genius> or <saint> […]

Table 4: Shengren translations in The Analects from 1649 to 2009 (German language authors underlined):

Source Title for Confucius Translation of sheng(ren) Translation of jun(zi)
Varenio, Bernhardo, Med. D. (1649), Tractatus de laponiorum religion Philosopher, 269 N/A N/A
Thevenot, M. Melchisedec (1669), Relations de Divers Voyages Curieux Philosopher, 8 ff.; le grand maistre, a Illustre, au Sage Roy des Lettres, 22; Magno Magistro, Illustri Literatum Regi, 17 N/A

 

N/A

Un homme Sage, 24

(a wise man)

Ludovico Magno et. al. (1687),  Confucius Sinarum Philosophus, Sive Scientia Sinensis (1., 2. and 4. book) Philosopher, Aij/B, B, G cxviij ff. çem-çu (!), G23-25, 29, 32, 33, 34, 35 ff.

No clean distinction between zhizhe (wise man), tianzi (prince), junzi (superior man), shanren (good man), and shengren (sage), but: hominum naturae (the natural man) (Ludovico Magno, 1678, p. 33) or imminent istiusmodi personae (the proper person) (p. 33), superioribus, 26

Scientiae Sinicae – Liber Tertius – Lún Yú

(3. book), in Ludovico Magno (1687), Sinarum Philosophus

Confucius Monimentisque Priscorum Sapientum (Ancient Sage), 88 Virtutum magis illustrium, 126

(Illustre of highest virtue)

Taylor, Randal (1691), The Morals of Confucius A Chinese Philosopher, 2, 10, 20, 44, 104, 109, 131, 144; saint, 30, 41, 42; head doctor, 42 Saints, 118; perfection, 133; (not quite) philosophers, 20

[kings = shengren?]

The perfect man, 99 ff., 103 ff.; most illustre personage, princes, 5, 53, 58; [princes = junzi?]
Intorcetta, Prospero, et al. (1691), The morals of Confucius A Chinese Philosopher, 1 ff.; The Illustrious King of the Learned; The Saint, 27; Master of Kings and Emperors, 27 (and other eulogies) Shengren: Philosophers, 110 (ambigious)

The first Perfection, The State of the Saint, 88 (or junzi? Not clear)

Junzi: The perfect Man, 96; the Good Man, 122 (?); a Wise Man, 110, 123 ff. (maybe zhi?)

Most Illustrious Personages, 32; Prince, 34-37 ff. (no clear distinction between junzi and tianzi); thus person being perfected, 37; a perfect Man, 68 (keeps the Mean [in Zhong Yong])

Diogenes Laertius (1761), Les vies des plus illustres philosophes de l’antiquité Philosophe, 107 ; saint, 109 Saint Héros (saint kings), les Sages, 171, 172; le sage, 174, 175, 176, 177, 182, 183 ff., 187 (no distinction between shengren and junzi) le sage, 174, 175, 176, 177, 182, 183 ff. ;les gens de bien, 187

 

Schott, Wilhelm (1826), Werke des tschinesischen Weisen KUNG-FU-DSU und seiner Schüler Der Weise Staatsmann, 55; ein heiliger Mann, 69 Achtungswerther Mann, Ehrenmann, 41, 44
Gowan, William (1835), The Phenix – A Collection of Old and Rare Fragments: The Morals of Confucius, The Chinese Philosopher A Chinese Philosopher, 1 ff.; The Illustrious King of the Learned; The Saint, 27; Master of Kings and Emperors, 27 (and other eulogies) see above Intorcetta, Prospero, et al. (1691)
Pauthier, M. G. (1858), Confucius et Mencius Le Philosophe (du philosophe chinois) Un saint, 134, 138, 146 Un saint homme, 138, L’homme supérieur, 140, 146, 189
Legge, James (1861-1872), The Chinese Classics Confucius A sage, 42, 48, 50, 59, 133 The superior man, 59, 133
Loomis, Rev. A. W. (1867), Confucius and the Chinese Classics – Readings in Chinese Literature The sage, 60,61 ff.; Chinese Sage, 393 ff. Sages, 56, 73, 146, 147, 208, 228, 393 ff. Superior man, 96, 98-102,140- 147, 145 ff., 304
Legge, Rev. James (1877), Confucianism in Relation to Christianity Confucius N/A N/A
Watters, T. (1879), A Guide to the Tablets in a Temple of Confucius The Sage Sages, vii ff. Model man, 11
MacGowan, Rev. John (1889), Christ or Confucius, Which? Or, The Story of the Amoy Mission The great sage of China, 18, 74, 91, 201 N/A N/A
Wilde, Oscar (1890, 1997), A Chinese Sage The Sage, 17 Sages, 3 ff., 20 The perfect man, 14, 20
Legge, Rev. James (1893), The Chinese Classics, Vol. I-V The Sage Sages, 6.30; 7.26; 7.34; 9.6; 16.8; 19.12 The superior man, 6.24 ff.
Giles, Herbert A. (1898), A Chinese Bibliographic Dictionary Philosopher (K’ung), 398; Sage 398-401 Sages, 401 N/A
Smith, Arthur H. (1900), Chinese Characteristics Confucius; sage 254, 255, 267, 309, 311 N/A Superior man, 179, 283, 309
Grube, Wilhelm (1902), Geschichte der chinesischen Litteratur

 

Confucius 15 ff., 32; Philosoph, 16; der Edle, 80 Shengren: Ideal eines Mannes von höchster Bildung und vollendeten Umgangsformen, 24; Herrscherideale (Yao and Shun), 26; vorbildliche Person, 27;

Junzi: Höchstheilige im Reiche’, ‘Höchstwahrhaftige im Reiche, 94-95; Der Edle, 83, 84

Cranmer-Byng, L., Kapadia, S. A. (1910), The Sayings of Confucius Prince of philosophers, the wisest and most consummate of sages […] His sagacity put the most illustrious of ancient and modern philosophers to shame, 9 A divine man, 61; supernatural beings, 59; distinguished, 64; philosopher, 87; divine prophet, 88; a Prophet, so richly has he been endowed by God; 88 The true gentleman, 56; the nobler sort of man, 57, 65, 69-70; a princely man, 61, 67, 94; the virtuous man, 59; man of true distinction, 64; the higher type of man, 68
Wang Ching-Dao (1912), Confucius and New China, Confucius’ Idea of the State and its Relation to the Constitutional Government A politician, 22 (explicitly!); The Chinese sage, 6, 19; An ancient Chinese, 20 N/A (confusing, calling shi a sage, 31 Man of perfect virtue, 12
Soothill, E. (1913), The Three Religions of China The sage Confucius, 9

 

Sages, 63, 70-72, 240, 274 Noble Man, junzi, 237
Wilhelm, Richard (1914), Kungfutse – Gespräche Konfuzius Shengren: Gott, iv; einer der dem Volke reiche Gnade spendend, 60; göttlich, 60; zu einem Gott inspiriert mit göttlicher Autoritäet und Kraft des Geistes, 60 (in the notes); Genie, 88, 114; wenn der Himmel im Gelegenheit gibt, wird er sich als Genie beweisen, 88; die großen Männer, 187

Junzi: Der Weise, xx; der Edle, xxi, 75, 89, 169, 187

Haas, Hans (1920), Konfuzius in Worten aus seinem eigenen Mund Konfuzius; Morallehrer, 30 Der Edle, 46; Wesen der Edlen, 48 (he does not make the destinction between shengren and junren), Heilige, 49 Hochgestellter, 44; der Edle, 44, 46, 49; der edle Pfad, 48
Haas, Hans (1920), Lao-tsze und Konfuzius – Einleitung in ihr Spruchgut Konfuzius, 1 ff.; Philosoph, 26

(he calls him a variety of other names)

Die Heiligen, 14 N/A
Lyall, Leonard A. (1925), The Sayings of Confucius Confucius Holiness, 26, 31; a holy man, 30; the holy, 79 The gentleman, 1 ff.
Wilhelm, Richard (1925), Kung-Tse – Leben und Werkt Philosopher (but not in the European sense, 64 Die Heiligen, 165 Der Edle, 66
Giles, Herbert A. (1926), Confucianism and It’s Rivals The divinest of men, 66 Legendary beings, sentient heroes, 71; great sages, 73 Superior man, 72, 73, 82
Brown, Brian (1927), The Story o Confucius – His Life and Sayings Confucius Shengren: Sage, 84, 177; The man with the most perfect divine moral nature […]. He is equal of God, 169-170

Junzi: Gentleman, 84; Superior man, 86, 135, 136 ff.; the great man (is catholic-minded), 142

Pound, Ezra (1928, 1947, 1950), Confucius – The Great Digest, The Unwobbling Pivot, The Analects Philosopher, 19 ff. Sage, 218, 229; sage man, 222 Proper man, 224, 229; gentleman, 229
Biallas, Franz Xaver (1928), Konfuzius und Sein Kult Konfuzius; Der Alte, 11, 12 ff.

(calls Confu-

cianism a cult)

Die Heiligen, 43 ff., 120 Der Adlige, der ‘Edle’ Gün-dsi, 43 ff.
Starr, Frederick (1930), Confucianism – Ethics, Philosophy, Religion The Sage The true gentleman, 37
Danton, George H. & Annina (1931), Confucius and Confucianism by Richard Wilhelm Confucius; philosopher, 90, 92 Shengren: N/A – mixed up with junzi, holy men of antiquity, 162

Junzi: Sage, 161, 174-176; Superior man (for Wilhelm’s ‘höhere Mensch’), [The Philosopher (for ‘Der Weise’), 42, 46 note: probably translated from zhi/knowing (18.6)]

Hsü, Leonard Shihlien (1932), The Political Philosophy of Confucianism Sage, vii ff. Ancient sages, 30; social geniuses, 30; holy or sainted man, 114 The superior man, 13 ff.
Creel,  Herrlee Glessner (1932), Was Confucius Agnostic? Sage, 56, 61, 79, 99 (he relentlessly talks about the philosophy of…, 98-99 N/A Superior man, 85 (from Legge);
Bernard, Henri s. j. (1935), Sagesse Chinoise et Philosophie Chrétienne Le Sage des Sages, 27 Les Sages, les Saints, 50 ff. ; Saints par nature, 54 L’Homme Supérieur, 50 ff.; Saints par l’étude, 54
Johnston, Reginald F. (1935), Confucianism and Modern China The Sage The sage, 16 ff. The Gentleman, 207
Hsieh, Tehyi (1936), Confucius Said It First The sage, 40 ff. The princely man, 59, 61; the superior man, 78-82
Soothill, William E. (1937), The Analects or The Conversations of Confucius with his Disciples and Certain Others The Sage, v ff. A sage, 58, 69 ff.; The being inspired, 82 The noble man, 70; nobleness of character, 82; a man of higher order, the superior man, 162
Lin, Yutang (1938), The Wisdom of Confucius ‘The body of the Sage’ (e. g. Confucius is the body and his disciples are the limbs) The Sage, the true man, 162; true manhood, 165; saint, 179 The superior man, 153 ff., the moral man, 102; the gentleman, 154, 179
Pan, Stephen C. Y. (1938), A brief survey of Confucius’ Political Philosophy Sage, 150, 155 N/A N/A
Crow, Carl (1938), Master Kung – The Story of Confucius Master Kung, the great Chinese sage, 15 N/A N/A
Darré, R. Walther (1944), Zucht als Gebot Konfuzius, Philosoph (Begründer einer auf Sittenlehre gegründete Gotteslehre), 49 Shengren: N/A

Junzi: Der Edle, 56; der vollkommende Mensch (Gemeinschaft der Edlen als Aristokratie der Menschheit)

Collis, Maurice (1948), The First Holy One The First Holy One (he calls Laozi ‘The Venerable Sir,’ and uses biblical language elsewhere) Divine sage, 11 ff. True gentleman, 11 ff.
Herbert, Edward (1950), A Confucian Notebook Confucius as a man, as a philosopher and as a saint or ‘sage’, 4, 5 Sage, 6, 16, 20, 21-2, 40, 50, 68, 82, 83 Gentleman, 26
Creel, H. G. (1951), Confucius – The Man and the Myth Philosopher, pp. 119 ff. True gentleman, 67, 86, 91, 97, 101; ideal type of man, 86
Sherley-Price, Leo (1951), Confucius and Christ Sage, 17, 18, 26 ff.; a Chinese sage, 21; philosopher, 24 Sages and philosophers, 21, 24 ff. (interchangeable) The Gentleman (Chün-tzu), 117-129
Stange, Hans. O. H. (1953), Gedanken und Gespräche des Konfuzius, Lun-Yü Konfuzius, 7 ff. Ein Heiliger, 71, 79, 88, 180; große Männer, 159 (!)

(he translates zhi-zhe as ‘die Weisen,’ 69; and ren-zhe as ‘ein Guter,’ 70)

Der Edle, 70, 79, 80, 159, 180
Liu Wu-Chi (1955), Confucius, His Life and Time K’ung Ch’iu Shengren: Sage-kings, 163

Junzi: gentleman, 92, 99, 167; Feudal lords, 162; The prince, 163; a wise and benevolent prince, 164-165

Liu Wu-Chi (1955), A Short History of Confucian Philosophy K’ung Ch’iu (democratic thinker, 74; founder of Ju philosophy, 13 ff.; sage (implied) N/A N/A
Chang Chi-yun (1957), A Life of Confucius, transl. by Shih Chao-yin Confucius the thinker, 26; the sagest of sages, 3 A sage, 86 A Gentleman, 1 ff.
Jaspers, Karl (1957, 1964, 1971), Die maβgebenden Menschen – Sokrates, Buddha, Konfuzius, Jesus, in Die Großen Philosophen Philosoph, 18 ff. Shengren: Heilige, 144, 147; Heilige und Weise, 155; (calls Taoist shengren: ‘Asketen, Beschwörer, Alchimisten, Lebensverlängerer, Zauberer und Gaukler,’ 159

Junzi: Die besten Menschen, 136; Der Edle, 141, 142,

Nivison, David S., Wright, Arthur F. et al. (1959), Confucianism in Action Confucius Superior man, 35, 39, 45, 52, 53, 54, 221, 274
Chai, Ch’u, Chai, Winberg (1965), The Sacred Books of Confucius and Other Confucian Classics Confucius Sage, 74 ff Chün-tzu 30 ff., Man of virtue, a true gentleman, 30-31
Pound, Ezra (1970), Confucian Analects Confucius Sage, 40, 46, 54, 111; sage man, 45 A proper man (one in whom the ancestral voices function), 45, 45; gentleman, 45, 99
Fingarette, Herbert (1972), Confucius – the Secular as Sacred Confucius (with magical powers, 3-5) The highest state of magical potency, 4 The (spiritually) noble man, 7
Chen, Lifu (1972), transl. by Liu, Shih Shun, The Confucian Way Ancient sage, the highest sage, 1 The Sage, the highest sage, 250 ff. Superior man, xii, 24, 34, 46
Wilhelm, Richard (1974), Die Philosophie Chinas – Kungfutse Gespräche Konfuzius or Kung Fu Dsi Göttlich, 80; Ein Gottmensch, 87; Genie, 98; die Heiligen (der Vorzeit), 167 Der Edle, 90, 99, 153, 167
Lau, Dim-cheuk (1979), Analects of Confucius Sagehood, 90
Tu Weiming (1979), Humanity and Self Cultivation: Essays in Confucian Thought Confucius Sheng, sage, 125; sage, 17, 26, 68, 86, 95, 111, 142, 157; highest form of authentic human, 20, 26, 72, 85, 96, 140 ff. Chun-tzu (gentleman), 7, 22, 31, 235, 286
Allan, Sarah (1981), The Heir and the Sage: Dynastic Legend in Early China Philosopher, 123 ff. Sages,
Feifel, Eugen (1982), Geschichte der chinesischen Literatur Philosoph (no, not a philsopher), Heiliger (no, not a holy man), 54, 55 N/A The educated, 54
Schwarz, Ernst (1985), Konfuzius – Gespräche des Meisters Kung Meister Kung, 5 ff. Weiser von großer Heiligkeit, 60; wahrlich Weisen, 64, 65, vollkommener Weiser, 71; Weise, 113 Ein edler Mensch, 60, 71, 113
Von Wedemeyer, Inge (1986), Konfuzius – Meister der Güte und Mitmentschlichkeit Philosoph Heilige, 43 Der Edle, 30 ff.
Tu Weiming (1987), The Confucian Sage: Exemplar of Personal Knowledge, in Hawley, John Stratton (1987), Saints and Virtues The paradigmatic sage, 73, 85; preeminent sage, 73 The Confucian Sage, 73, 78, 82, 86 N/A
Tu Weiming (1988), Confucianism in an Historical Perspective Confucius, 1 ff. Sageliness, 2, 18; sagehood, 3 Nobleman, 3, 8; Confucian Nobleman, 18
Goepper, Roger (1988), Das Alte China – Geschichte und Kultur des Reiches der Mitte Konfuzius, Philosoph (implied), 187, 197 N/A Junzi, der Edle, der höhere Mensch, 193
Taylor, Rodney L. (1990), The Religious Dimensions of Confucianism A Sage, 39 ff.; sheng, 40-41 Sages, 39 ff.; sheng (sage), 3, 23-24, 32, 47-52, 49-50, 40-41, 43-47; sheng (saint), 39 A noble person (chün-tzu), 12, 15, 26, 37, 41
Kuhn, Dieter (1991), Status und Ritus – Das China der Aristokraten […] Konfuzius N/A Ein Edler, ein junzi, 240-241, 244
Wei, Yuqing (1993), Vergleichende Paedagogische China Forschung

 

Konfuzius (als Paedagoge/Lehrer), 121 ff. Heilige, 167, 171, 176, 189; Weise, 192 Junzi, 160, 171 ff.; junzi (als vollkommendes [idealisiertes] ethisches Wesen, 160
Roetz, Heiner (1994), Konfuzius Philosoph, 9 ff.; Wanderphilosoph, 19 Die grossen Denker, 7, Philosophen, 43;

Genius, Heiliger, 104

Der Edle, 11 ff.
Rosemont, Henry, Ames, Roger (1998), The Analects of Confucius: A Philosophical Translation N/A N/A The exemplary person, 107-108
Liu Shu-hsien (1998), Understanding Confucian Philosophy Confucius, 3, 15-29 ff. (the word ‘philosopher’ is avoided) Sageliness, 20; sages, 26 Superior Man (Chün-tzu), 17,26, 27; gentleman (Chün-tzu), 19
Pohl, Karl-Heinz (1999), Chinese Thought in a Global Context Confucius, 24, 37, 39 ff. Shengren: Sheng, sage, 219, 291; holy sages; Chinese ‘philosopher’ [attributed to Geldsetzer, Lutz] 299; model-philosopher, 302

Junzi: Junzi (Confucian gentleman) [attributed to Rötz, Heiner], 252; superior man [attributed to Geldsetzer, Lutz], 299, [attributed to Riegel, Klaus-Georg] 344; junzi 349-351

Shankman, Steven, Durrant, Stephen (2000), The Siren and the Sage Confucius Sages, 8-12, 186 N/A
Zotz, Volker (2000), Konfuzius Konfuzius N/A Führungspersönlichkeiten, 7; Der Edle, 119
Paul, Gregor (2001), Konfuzius Konfuzius Shengren, Weiser, 35 ff., 91, 108, 109, 114, 119 Edler, 35 ff.
Guo Xuezhi (2002), The Ideal Chinese Political Leader – A Historical and Cultural Perspective Confucius (the thinker), 3 ff. Sages (Shengren), ix, xi, 55, 71  ff., 104 (he talks mainly about Daoist sages) Confucian Nobleman (Junzi), ix-x, 3 ff., 105-106 ff.
Zhang, Dainian (2002), Key Concepts in Chinese Philosophy Philosopher (is understood) N/A

Talk about Chinese philosopher s(throughout the book)

N/A

Gentleman, 421

Simson, Wojciech Jan (2002), Die Geschichte der Aussprüche des Konfuzius (Lunyu) Konfuzius Die Berufenen (the chosen, the called upon, 90, 94, 169, 246 Die Edlen, 28, 35, 45, 55, 59 ff.
Cua, Antonio S. (2003), Encyclopedia of Chinese Philosophy Confucius

(The philosopher is implied)

Confucian sage, 697-699; sage, 132-134, 211-212, 132-134, 335; shengren (sagely person), 872 Junzi (chün-tzu), 132-134, 178, 179, 529-530; the moral person, 329-335
Lai, Karyn L. (2008), An Introduction to Chinese Philosophy

 

Philosopher (total overuse) (Lai uses translations by Rosemont, 1998, and Chan, 1963) Sage king, 8 (?), sage, 101 (but in Daodejing, transl. by Chan, 1963) Confucian paradigmatic person, 19, 23, 49-51; the exemplary person, 27; chun tzu [junzi], 49
Lee, Eun-Jeung (2008), Konfuzius interkulturell gelesen Konfuzius Shengren, 50 ff.; Kulturheroen, halblegendäre Könige der früheren Dynastien (ähnlich wie Philosophenkönige von Plato), 49 Junzi, 50 ff; Der Edle (der Herrschaft der Tugend), 56

 

Höllmann, Thomas O. (2008), Das alte China – Eine Kulturgeschichte Konfuzius N/A Der Edle, 242
Wen Haiming (2009), Confucian Pragmatism as the Art of Contextualizing Personal Experience and World Confucius, Philosopher (is understood) Sheng, sagacity, 158, god-like human beings, 158-160 Junzi, exemplary person, 9, 19, 64, 67, 105-107, 114, 142-44, 147, 150-153, 159 ff.
Angle, Stephen C. (2009), Sagehood Sage, 13 ff. (understood) The Sage (sheng), 13 ff. (the explicit topic of the entire book); the Neo-Confucian sage, 14 ff. Gentleman (junzi), 14 ff.\

Pattberg, Thorsten (2011), Shengren – Above Philosophy and Beyond Religion, LoD Press, New York